Statistics Canada 2006 census data shows the average salaries for 1st generation immigrants to Canada, age 25-44 with university degrees:
White - $68,036 avg.
Canadian-born whites - $65,000.
Percentage of 2nd-generation Canadians with university degrees
60% of Chinese
52% of South Asians
36% of Filipinos
32% of blacks
23% of Latin Americans.
Below-average incomes due to
- language problems
- lack of Canadian experience
- unrecognized credentials
Grandchildren of Chinese immigrants earn an average of $79,022 a year.
Incomes for South Asians also increased substantially by the 3rd generation.
Higher education among Chinese and South Asians is encouraged by the parents' cultural values.
3rd-generation blacks earned less than black immigrants.
The incomes of Latin Americans also fell across generations.
Recent immigrants from the Caribbean and Africa are fairly well educated but earn less than other newcomer groups, presumably because of discrimination.
Blacks have a 40% high school drop-out rate in Toronto high schools.
The drop out rate for the Portuguese community is just as high.